adaptation A change in the biological structure or lifeways of an individual or population by which it becomes
cognitive anthropology A theoretical approach that defines culture in terms of the rules and meanings underlying human beha
cultural ecology A theoretical approach that regards cultural patterns as adaptive responses to the basic problems of
cultural materialism A theoretical perspective that holds that the primary task of anthropology is to account for the sim
culture and personality theory An anthropological perspective that focuses on culture as the principal force in shaping the typical
diffusion The spread of cultural elements from one culture to another through cultural contact.
ecological functionalism A theoretical perspective that holds that the ways in which cultural institutions work can best be u
enculturation The process of learning to be a member of a particular cultural group.
ethnobotany A field of anthropological research focused on describing the ways in which different cultures class
ethnomedicine A field of anthropological research devoted to describing the medical systems and practices of diffe
ethnoscience A theoretical approach that focuses on the ways in which members of a culture classify their world a
functionalism (functionalist perspective) The anthropological theory that specific cultural institutions function to support the structure of
innovation A new variation on an existing cultural pattern that is subsequently accepted by other members of th
interpretive (symbolic) anthropology A theoretical approach that emphasizes culture as a system of meaning and proposes that the aim of c
neo-evolutionism A theoretical perspective concerned with the historical change of culture from small-scale societies
neo-Marxism A theoretical perspective concerned with applying the insights of Marxist thought to anthropology; n
norm An ideal cultural pattern that influences behavior in a society.
plasticity The ability of humans to change their behavior in response to a wide range of environmental demands.
sociobiology A theoretical perspective that explores the relationship between human cultural behavior and genetic
structural anthropology A theoretical perspective that holds that all cultures reflect similar deep, underlying patterns and
subculture A system of perceptions, values, beliefs, and customs that are significantly different from those of
symbol Something that stands for something else.
transculturation The transformation of adopted cultural traits, resulting in new cultural forms.
value A culturally defined idea of what is true, right, and beautiful.
cultural adaptation A complex of ideas, activities, and technologies that enable people to survive and even thrive in th
cultural relativism The idea that one must suspend judgment of other people's practices in order to understand them in t
enculturation The process by which a society's culture is passed on from one generation to the next and individual
ethnic group People who collectively and publicly identify themselves as a distinct group based on cultural featu
ethnicity This term, rooted in the Greek word ethnikos ("nation") and related to ethnos ("custom"), is the exp
gender The cultural elaborations and meanings assigned to the biological differentiation between the sexes.
infrastructure The economic foundation of a society, including its subsistence practices and the tools and other ma
pluralistic society A society in which two or more ethnic groups or nationalities are politically organized into one ter
social structure The rule-governed relationships-with all their rights and obligations-that hold members of a society
society An organized group or groups of interdependent people who generally share a common territory, langua
subculture A distinctive set of ideas, values, and behavior patterns by which a group within a larger society o
superstructure A society's shared sense of identity and worldview. The collective body of ideas, beliefs, and
symbol A mark, sound, gesture, motion, or other sign that is arbitrarily linked to something else and repre
cultural constructions The ways the members of a culture perceive social and natural reality and divide reality into catego
cultural identity The cultural tradition a group of people recognize as their own; the shared customs and beliefs that
culture (as used in this text) Shared, socially transmitted knowledge and behavior.
enculturation (socialization) The transmission of culture to succeeding generations by means of social learning.
norms Shared ideas and expectations about how certain people ought to act in given situations.
patterns of behavior The behaviors that most people perform when they are in certain culturally defined situations.
role A social position in a group, with its associated and reciprocal rights (privileges) and duties (obl
society A territorially distinct and largely self-perpetuating group whose members have a sense of collectiv
symbols Objects, behaviors, and so forth whose culturally defined meanings have no necessary relationship to
values Shared ideas or standards about the worthwhileness of goals and lifestyles.
world view The way a people interpret reality and events, including how they see themselves in relation to the
adaptive nature of culture The implication that culture is the major way human populations adapt or relate to their specific ha
civilization A term used by anthropologists to describe any society that has cities.
cultural diffusion The spreading of a cultural trait (that is, material object, idea, or behavior pattern) from one soc
cultural universals Those general cultural traits found in all societies of the world.
culture shock A psychological disorientation experienced when attempting to operate in a radically different cultu
enculturation The process by which human infants learn their culture.
innovations Changes brought about by the recombination of already existing items within a culture.
monochronic culture A culture whose people view time in a linear fashion, place great importance on punctuality and keep
organic analogy Early functionalist idea that cultural systems are integrated into a whole cultural unit in much the
pluralistic societies Societies composed of a number of different cultural or subcultural groups.
polychronic culture A culture in which people typically perform a number of tasks at the same time and place a higher va
small-scale society A society that has a relatively small population, has minimal technology, is usually preliterate, ha
subculture A subdivision of a national culture that shares some features with the larger society and also diffe
symbol Something, either verbal or nonverbal, that stands for something else.
adaptation a change in the biological structure or lifeways of an individual or population by which it becomes
cognitive anthropology a theoretical position in anthropology that focuses on the relationship between the mind and society
cultural ecology a theoretical position in anthropology that focuses on the adaptive dimension of culture
Culture and personality a theoretical position in anthropology that held that cultures could best be understood by examining
diffusion the spread of cultural elements from one culture to another
dominant culture the culture with the greatest wealth and power in a society that consists of many subcultures
ecological functionalism a theoretical position in anthropology that focuses on the relationship between environment and soci
enculturation the process of learning to be a member of a particular cultural group
ethnobotany a focus within anthropology that examines the relationship between humans and plants in different cu
ethnomedicine a focus within anthropology that examines the ways in which people in different cultures understand
ethnoscience a theoretical position in anthropology that focuses on recording and examining the ways in which mem
functionalism a theoretical position in anthropology, common in the first half of the 20th century, that focuses o
historical particularism a theoretical position in anthropology associated with American anthropologists of the early 20th ce
innovation an object or a way of thinking or behaving that is new because it is qualitatively different from ex
interpretive anthropology a theoretical position in anthropology that focuses on using humanistic methods, such as those found
norms shared ideas about the way things ought to be done; rules of behavior that reflect and enforce cultu
organic analogy the comparison of societies to living organisms
plasticity the ability of human individuals or cultural groups to change their behavior with relative ease
postmodernism a theoretical position in anthropology that focuses on issues of power and voice. Postmodernists sug
subculture a group within a society that shares norms and values significantly different from those of the domi
symbol something that stands for something else. Central to culture.
symbolic anthropology a theoretical position in anthropology that focuses on understanding cultures by discovering and ana
values shared ideas about what is true, right, and beautiful